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I began my research in equity in the area of differential item functioning (DIF). The idea was that if biased item were removed, a test would become fair. Later, I realized that DIF has little, if anything, to do with test fairness (Camilli, 1993). Most of what makes a test fair stem from its conceptual design and quality control procedures in item development. Claims of test fairness have a stong similarity to claims of test validity. In this regard, E.F. Lindquist wote the most sensible thing I have ever read:

the most important consideration is that the test questions require the examinee to do the same things, however complex, that he is required to do in the criterion situations. (Lindquist, 1951, p. 154, original emphasis)

Below, substantive studies in equity are given, followed by methodological studies.

Lindquist, E. F. (1951). Preliminary considerations in objective test construction. In E. F. Lindquist (Ed.), Educational measurement (pp. 119–158). Washington, DC: American Council on Education.

Camilli, G. (1993). The Case Against Item Bias Techniques Based on Internal Criteria: Do Item Bias Procedures Obscure Test Fairness Issues? In P.W. Holland & H. Wainer (Eds.) Differential Item Functioning: Theory and Practice. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. pdf

Equity Studies – Substantive

Vitello, S.J. & Camilli, G. & Molenaar, M. (1987). Performance of special education students on a minimal competency test. Diagnostique, 28-35.

Camilli, G. (1993). The Case Against Item Bias Techniques Based on Internal Criteria: Do Item Bias Procedures Obscure Test Fairness Issues? In P.W. Holland & H. Wainer (Eds.) Differential Item Functioning: Theory and Practice. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Firestone, W.A., Camilli, G., Yurecko, M., Monfils, L & Mayrowetz, D. (2000). State Standards, Socio-Fiscal Context and Opportunity to Learn in New Jersey. Educational Policy Analysis Archives, 8(35). Available at

Barnett, W.S. & Camilli, G. (2001). Preschool education, cognitive development, and “race.” In J. Fish (ed). Understanding race and intelligence. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.

Camilli, G. and Monfils, L. (2004). Test scores and equity in New Jersey. In Firestone, W. A., Schorr, R., & Monfils, L. (Eds.). The ambiguity of teaching to the test (pp. 143-157). Erlbaum.

Camilli, G., Vargas, S., Ryan, S. & Barnett, W.S. (2010). A meta-analysis of the effects of early education interventions on cognitive development. Teachers College Record, 112 (3), 579-620.

Allington, R. L.. McGill-Franzen, A., Camilli, G., Williams, L., Graff, J., Zeig, J., Zmach, C. & Nowak, R. (2010). Addressing summer reading setback among economically disadvantaged elementary students. Reading Psychology, 31(5), 411-427.

Camilli, G., Jackson, D., Chiu, C.-Y., & Gallagher, A. (2011). The Mismatch Hypotheses in Law School Admissions. Widener Journal of Law, Economics & Race, 2 (1), article 3.

Camilli, G. & Welner, K.G. (2011). Is There a Mismatch Effect in Law School, Why Might it Arise, and What Would It Mean? Journal of College and University Law, 37, 491-528.

Domingue, B.W., Thomas, S., Circi, R. & Camilli, G. (2011). Comment on Schools and Inequality: A Multilevel Analysis of Coleman’s Equality of Educational Opportunity Data. Teachers College Record, Date Published: September 16, 2011 ID Number: 16544, Date Accessed: 9/27/2011.

Camilli, G. (2013). Ongoing issues in test fairness. Educational Research and Evaluation: An International Journal on Theory and Practice, 19 (2-3), 104-120.

Equity Studies – Methodological

Shepard, L.A., Camilli, G. & Averill, M.A. (1981). Comparison of Procedures for detecting test-item bias with both internal and external ability criteria. Journal of Educational Statistics, 6, 317-375.

Shepard, L.A., Camilli, G. & Williams, D.M. (1984). Accounting for statistical artifacts in item-bias research. Journal of Educational Statistics, 9, 87-142.

Shepard, L.A., Camilli, G. & Williams, D.M. (1985). Validity of approx­­imation tech­niques for detecting item bias. Journal of Educational Measurement, 22, 77-105.

Camilli, G. & Shepard, L.A. (1985). A computer program to aid the detection of biased items. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 45, 595-600.

Camilli, G. & Shepard, L.A. (1987). The inadequacy of ANOVA for detecting biased items. Journal of Educational Statistics, 12, 87-99.

Camilli, G. & Smith, J.K. (1990). Comparison of the Mantel-Haenszel Test with a Randomized and a Jackknife Test for Detecting Biased Items. Journal of Educational Statistics, 15, 53-67.

Camilli, G. (1992). A conceptual analysis of differential item functioning in terms of a multidimensional item response model. Applied Psychological Measurement, 16, 129-147.

Camilli, G. & Shepard, L.A. (1994). Methods for Identifying Biased Test Items. Hollywood, CA: Sage Publications.

Camilli, G. & Penfield, D.A. (1997). Variance estimation for differential test functioning based on the Mantel-Haenszel log-odds ratio. Journal of Educational Measurement, 34, 123-139.

Camilli, G. & Congdon, P. (1999). Application of a method of estimating DIF for polytomous items. Journal of Behavioral and Educational Statistics, 4, 323-341.

Camilli, G. (2006). Test Fairness. In R. L. Brennan (Ed.), Educational measurement (4th ed.) (pp. 221-256). Westport, CT: American Council on Education/Praeger.

Penfield, R. & Camilli, G. (2007). Test fairness and differential item functioning. In C.R. Rao (Ed.) Handbook of Statistics: Psychometrics, Volume 26 (pp. 125-167). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Camilli, G., Briggs, D. C., Sloane, F. C., & Chiu, T.-W. (2013). Psychometric perspectives on test fairness: Shrinkage estimation. In K.F. Geisinger (Ed.-in-Chief), B. A. Bracken, J. F. Carlson, J. C. Hansen, N. R. Kuncel, S. P. Reise, & M. C. Rodriguez (Assoc. Eds.), APA handbooks in psychology: APA handbook of testing and assessment in psychology: Volume 3. Testing and assessment in school psychology and education. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.







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